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The Altamont and Blue Ridge 2
Starting Over: A Comprehensive Project Blog

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Beginning 3/2018

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Backdrop Silhouettes and Lake Bed at East River

Adjacent to the Mountain on the East River Curve there are two lake crossings. I have held off on installing the mountain silhouettes behind these crossing because I have been thinking about exactly how to handle the mountain flats on the backdrop wall behind an expanse of water like a lake. This is to say how to create the distant shore of a 3 dimensional lake in two dimensions on the back drop wall. The sketch below shows my thoughts on this matter: a large, distant mountain silhouette with a low treeline on the shore line in front. The lake floor with its Magic-Water-poured onto a sheet of .040 styrene on a flat surface and then installed to kind of bend up to the shoreline to create a slightly raised, arrow-straight line of the bank with forest floor and tree canopy above. Having the lake terminate into the wall an inch or so up the wall should help to create the illusion of additional depth, which is what I want here.

Here's the general concept.
Here is the the crossing scene with the far mountain ridgeline installed.
Here the backdrop silhouette work is completed and the rock sides of the lake glued in place. The near shore will be a marshy area at the bottom of a steep slope down from the rounded homasote cutout above. I can now remove the .040 styrene sheet, paint my lake on it, detail the shoreline and lake bottom, seal the enclosure with gloss medium, and pour the Magic Water. Then I'll replace the finished lake in a single piece, glue it down, and tie in the marshy part of the near shore line to the adjoining terrain using trees, rocks, foliage, and ground cover etc.
Here is the completed scene. As it turns out, the shadow of the bridge on the lake helps to add depth, and so does the juxtaposition of the two fishermen and the small sailboat. If I had it to do over again, I would make the large triangular rock a bit smaller than the one the fishermen are standing on. 

Adding Earth Texture, Ground Cover, Shrubs and Trees
to the Mountain on the East River Curve: 

Now, back to my mountain.  I'll put down a texturing layer on the painted earthen areas. I use a mixture of tempera paint powder and plaster of paris sprinkled over the painted earth sections that have been first sprayed with a solution of equal parts water and isopropyl alcohol. This gives you a really nice, textured, realistic bare earth effect to lay your grass or over ground cover on. You could just glue your ground cover right over the smooth painted surface,, but adding this texturing step really softens the end result and looks more realistic. It is especially effective if you leave spots of bare earth showing through here and there. Warning: the dry paint powder has a tendency to get everywhere and as you later spray over any this, it tends to splatter, so it is good idea to mask off nearby track, structures, and roadways and use a hand held shield to protect rocks and foliage and backdrop when dusting the powder or spraying the liquid etc. This technique is a variation on Linn Westcott's famous "zip texturing" idea popularized in the late 1960s. It is described as follows in Joe Fugate’s masterful “Forum Clinic.” http://siskiyou-railfan.net/e107_plugins/forum/forum_viewtopic.php?1270.10
In Joe's words:
“Be aware that the plaster - tempera paint mix darkens quite a bit when you wet it down, so mix up a batch that looks too light to you, then apply it to a scrap of scenery, wet it down and allow it to dry. Once it's dry, check the color. If it's too dark, add more plaster and try again. If it's too light, add more color and try again. Keep track of your formula so you can repeat it later. Generally, you want somewhere between 2 - 8 parts plaster to color, or perhaps 10 parts plaster if you need a really light "dirt". Keep track of the total parts that are color. For example, the rich brown dirt color below has 3 parts that are color, so 9 parts plaster is really a ratio of 3 parts plaster to 1 part color (9 divided by 3 is 3). For reference, here's some simple formulas I use.
Rich brown dirt:
1 part black
2 parts brown
9 parts plaster (3:1 color to plaster)
Tan dirt:
1 part black
2 parts brown
1 part yellow
16 parts plaster (4:1 color to plaster)
Get yourself a tea strainer, spray wet water (water with a few drops of detergent in it) on the bare brown scenery, and sprinkle some of the plaster-tempera mix onto the scenery. Then mist the plaster mix from above lightly with more water from a pump spray bottle. In a couple of hours, the plaster should be dry and set up. If it's still loose, spray it again.
If I want something that looks muddy, I'll soak the plaster good. Or if I want a more dusty look, I'll take it easy with the water.”

After everything is dry, you can use your vacuum to get up any loose powder. You may need to touch up a few spots here and there at this point, but this is easy – just few pinches of the plaster paint powder and few little shots of my water/alcohol spray. Don't worry if the finished product is a little dusty to the touch. It will all be well sealed when you apply the glue mix to attach ground cover.

To make my red/brown mix, I use .5 parts red, .5 parts yellow, 1.5 parts black and 2.5 parts brown to 9 parts plaster. To make my dark brown mix I use a darker variation of Joe’s rich brown dirt recipe using 1.5 parts black and 2.5 parts brown and 9 parts plaster.

The truth of the matter is that, the way I do it, the exact color doesn't matter much, because I like to go back over
every bit of exposed earth with a very thin coat using a basic red-earth color latex paint mixed with water to make a thin wash. Then I just lightly dab it on. This gets the red-earth color just right, and it also helps blend the dark earth and the red earth borders.

Once the texturing layer is complete and fully dry, I move on to adding ground covers, shrubs and trees.

erm Here is the mountain with the rock, walls, and track masked off and the texture applied. In this photo the plaster is still wet. It will dry a much lighter color. In this case I got the red earth mix a little on the purple side, but it doesn't matter. I'll go back over it with thinned latex paint color wash using my basic red-earth color to adjust the color once it dries and sets up hard. Once set, you can quickly but lightly over-wash this stuff with thinned paint to correct color and then with thinned glue (either white or matte medium) to attach ground cover. But you must be very careful - just lightly dab the fluids on - don't use forceful brush strokes or you will smooth out the grainy texture, and don't spray because you'll want to leave a few spots uncovered so some earth shows through here and there. It's a great effect.. 
Here is the finished earth texturing, ready for ground cover.
ermgc And here is the mountain with the basic ground cover applied. I like the Woodland Scenics fine turf and mixed turf products for this: first fine turf in a medium green, then a dusting of green blend (a WS mix of fine turf made from a variety of greens) and then a few spots of burnt grass and yellow colored fine turf for variety. The forest floor sections, covering the dark-brown-earth painted areas, is made using two shades, soil or earth colored WS fine turf, with a sprinkling of fine turf in a burnt green and then a sprinkling of course turf in a light green. I have left the road uncovered allowing the textured red earth to show, and I sprinkled on a little ballast to simulate gravel. Then, liberally using contact cement, I added the tree line where the mountain meets the wall. Notice I use larger clumps on the lower slopes and diminish the size of the clumps as I ascend to the top where I have a thick forest covering the summit. At this point things are beginning to take shape, and the forced perspective effect is clearly beginning to work.
ermb Now I add bushes and shrubs and vines to the rock outcroppings, again using plenty of contact cement and Woodland Scenics Clump Foliage in three colors and WS Foliage to simulate creeping vines on the rock faces: large clumps in the foreground and generally smaller clumps of folaige as I go up the slopes. At this point, I will also add a little more color to the rocks using pastels and washes to emulate mosses, and lichens, and dirty spots. Notice the variations in the grass color and bare earth patches I have allowed to show through here and there. I have also added a few loose rocks, thickets, and a few fallen trees to the forest floor areas in perperation for adding my trees. 
ermc Trees: I like to use a variety of tree types in a variety of green shades. Here I'll be using trees salvaged from the A&BR1, so each tree will have to be refurbished with foliage and paint. Before I add my trees, I like to install a few strategicially-placed trees to help me execute the forced perspective. These represent the largest trees and shrubs in any given area, and I can use them as a guide to size the surriunding trees and other greenery.  Also, although I did not do it here, I often give the smallest and most distant trees and shrubs just a hint of gray over-spray to add to the illusion of distance.

Here's the mountain completed. I placed and lanscaped two structures (N scale for the house in the foreground and Z scale for the more distant house in the upper right on the horizon). Finally, I added a vehicle, a few figures, and some cows
ermf Looking up this mountain meadow gives a good idea of the effectiveness of my forced perspective.Every thing gets smaller and less distinct as the eye move up the hill. Note the cows in two sizes - the cows in the distance are goats painted to look like cows. 
ERMCov Model railroading can be a dusty business. While the the adjacent scenery is under construtction I'll cover my completed work with this very thin plastic sheeting. It is light enough to rest on the tree tops without damage.

New Computers and Monitors Arrive

On and off, for the last few months, I have been shopping online for desktop computers to run the A&BR2. I'll need two
since I plan to have a separate 4D Sound systen for the center bench when I get around to it. The two computers will eventually be networked together using a TCP/IP network and running Railroad and Company's "Net" software. Since the desktop models I select will not do much of anything else except run Traincontroller, I won't need alot of computing power or hard disk memory. I need wifi, and I have determined that I want to run windows 10, so at least 4 gig of RAM will be required. Also a 64 bit processor seems best. My current laptop runs TC smoothly with a rated speed of only 3.18 mHz, so anything in that speed range will probably work fine. The least expensive new units with these features cost about $300 or so, and that does not include monitors, keyboards, cables, or mice. I did a little research into used units, and I hit on a Walmart online offering for "refurbished" HP units with a 64 bit Intel Core processor, 4 gig of RAM, 180 gig of disk memory, 3.0gHz, with 8 serial ports, wifi, a network port, a 17 inch monitor, all the cables, a keyboard, a mouse, and free shipping for $134 each. This seemed impossible to beat, and even though I would have preferred a wide screen monitor configuration, the rest fit the bill exactly. So I bought two. They came yesterday, and they work great! I've already set them both up, naming the one that will control the perimeter mainline loops "Main" and the one that will eventually control the center bench section "Terminal." I then downloaded TrainController Gold 9.0, Train Animator, and 4D Sound onto both computers, installed Norton Anti virus, and copped my Railroad and Company "Documents" folder with all my yrrgs, yras, wavs, jpgs, and my custom exe files onto both.

I am out of town for few days, but when I return, I'll install my 7.1 surround software on both machines, and take them down to the train room and get both running the current layout using Traincontroller 9.0 and my current yrrg file. Then I'll set up a TCP/IP Network, and put one of then aside until I am ready to wire up the center section of the layout years from now. I'll use the other to run the current layout while keeping my laptop up to date so I can work away from the layout as well. My ultimate plan calls for a custom made control desk with these monitors, keyboards and mice built in. 
Two refurbished HP desktops: 64 bit, 4 gig or RAM, 180 gig memory, 3.0gHz, with 8 serial ports, wifi, network port, 17 inch monitors, keyboard and mouse. Total cost delivered: $268!
cb Here is a preliminary sketch of the proposed control desk that will house the monitors and keyboards.

New Computers Up and Running

Both of the "new" computers are up and running and I have installed TC 9.0 and 4D Sound on both as well as the drivers for my surround sound box and for the servo controller, and I am running schedules complete with sound including all train sounds and a number of stationary sounds as well, I am also running all lighting effects including HUE light sunrises and sunsets. This took a little time, but both units seem to be working great.

There is one small glitch. The sound positioning widow in TC On "Main" has somehow been corrupted. I suspect that this is a Windows problem for I had to fool around with some display settings to get my switchboard to display correctly on the 17" monitor. This problem does not show up on my laptop, nor on the other "new" HP unit, both of which work fine running exactly the same software and data files. I am working on the TrainController online forum to get help clearing this up. In the meantime, it is not really too much of a problem.

Note: 3/29/2018. I preformed a Reset of Windows 10 on "Main" today. It took all day, and it failed to fix  the Sound Position Window problem. I guess the next step is a full "clean" Windows install. Whew! I think I'll just live with it for a while. Everything else seems to work, and I can use my lap top or the other HP desktop should I need to adjust the sound position of one of the blocks. In the meantime, I'll do some reading, and see if I can't find a way to reset the display without having to re-install Windows.

Note 4/1/2018. Another Easter Miracle! After quite a bit of fumbling around I finally fixed the problem. It was the zoom sizing for the display, which is what I thought was wrong at first. However, problems arose owing to the fact that windows has two different "Change Display" screens, one for the user's personal settings, and one screen that works system wide called "Change Primary Display Settings." Every time I asked to go to the "Change Display" screen, Windows would take me to the user screen without mentioning the existence of the other option. This option was not mentioned in any off the Microsoft documentation or service papers I read. I finally found it more or less by accident, and resetting the zoom there immediately fixed the problem. It is getting more and more difficult to navigate Windows settings!

Creating A More Complex Lake at Westridge.

With the success of the little lake bed at the East River Curve, I now feel confident to try something a little more ambitious, so I'll turn my attention to creating the larger lake bed on the other side of East River Mountain at Westridge. With three bridges already in place, this will be a little tricky, but I have a good plan, which I devised after consulting by phone with Dave Williams the inventor of Magic Water, and a very nice guy. Having the far shoreline terminate up the backdrop wall by 1/2 inch helps to enhance the forced perspective, but this, as well as having to work under and around the bridges, dictates that I can't pour my Magic Water in place on the layout. I'll have do this in sections, re-assemble the sections and glue them together on a very flat surface, make the pour, let the whole thing dry, and then cut them apart again, and finally reinstall the pieces on the layout. Part of the trick here is to take care to hide the tell-tale seams where the cut were made beneath the bridges or behind the raised roadbed causeway.
s1 Here is the area in question. I plan a deep water lake along the back wall joining the wall about 1/2 inch up and resting on the homasote strips I have installed just beneath the styrene strip with the tree line photo on it. There will be a deep water inlet (cove) beneath the two crossing bridges and terminating in a rock face around the cork area in the lower right corner of the photo, and I plan another shallow swampy wetland cove under the wooden tressel terminating near the edge of the plywood to the left-center of the photo.

The plan is to layout the water feature in place on four sections of .040 styrene, taking care that they join with nice straight edges. Then I'll mark the outline of the lake and the exact joint locations, remove the sections, place them on a flat bench, tape them back in place and then glue them carefully together using plastic cement to form a single piece. Next, I'll glue a .080 styrene barrier along the long  back edge where it will join to the wall using thin plastic model cement. And then I'll create the shoreline by molding about 1/4+ inch high Sculptamold barrier all the way around.

When the Sculptamold is dry, I'll seal everything up well (the barrier strip, the homasote shoreline and the sheet styrene joints) using thick gloss medium. Then I'll paint the lake bottom, detail the lake bottom around the shore, and pour my Magic Water. Finally, I'll use a very sharp razor knife to cut the sections apart again. and reinstall them in place on the layout. I have taken care to make sure that the cuts will be masked from the viewer's eye by the bridges and the roadbed causeway, and if I am careful making my cuts they will be pretty much invisible anyway. I tried this last week on a little test lake I made when I first began to experiment with Magic Water. I could detect a fine line where the Magic Water was cut, but it was subtle indeed.  
s2 Here are the four .040 styrene sheets in place. Note: I have left about 1/8" clearance under the tressel pilings.
s3 Here the styrene pieces are removed and reassembled on a flat place on the bench top.
s4 And here they are glued back together and a .080 square strip of styrene barrier added along the back edge (it does not show up in this photo,) and with the low Sculptamold shoreline molded all around. 
s5 Now the whole thing is sealed with gloss medium with extra attention to sealing the sheet styrene joints. It is then painted with flat latex paint in two shades of green: a deep green for deep water and a lighter, dustier green for the shallows. (The color gradations do not show up in the photo, and they are indeed subtle, but still, they are clear to the eye.) Then the shoreline in-water and underwater detail (rocks, dead trees, gravel, some in-water plant life in the swamp etc.)  is added and, after careful mixing, the Magic Water is poured. This took nearly 48 hrs to fully dry.

I calculated the area of the lake (~308 sq inches) and since I know 18 oz of  Magic Water will cover ~244 square inches .125 inch deep. I calculate 12 oz will cover my 308 square inch to a depth of about .074 inches.That's a bit over a 1/16 of an inch. Remember I have a .080 strip styrene barrier in the back, so 12 oz  ought to be about right. I just need to make sure the entire thing is super level. Notice I have surrounded the thing with .040 sheets of styrene, which I can use as shims should there be low spots that want to overflow after the pour. This stuff stays liquid for hours, so making these kinds of adjustments, if need, is easy. 
s6 Finished lake and wetland.
s7 Another view.

The Mountain at Westridge

The plan now is to turn my attention to the mountain covering the turnaround loop at this, the Northeast end of the layout. Once that mountain is complete I can layout and build the little town of Westridge, which will lie in a valley between my two completed mountains and overlook the newly-created Lake Merley.

As with the recently-completed mountain in the corner, east of  Westridge, I'll begin by making a rough sketch of the topography indicating the approximate location of all features. Then I'll position the tunnel portals and fill in with more bracing on the homasote framework in order to more fully support the
flimsy screen covering and to supply level places to attach rock outcroppings, roadways, structures etc.

wmf Here is the completed frame with tunnel portals and highway roadbed in place and little shelves for rock faces running  just above the base and near the rocky summit. In between, there will be a large, relatively flat, undulating mountain pasture, and two level pads: the lager pad for a z scale barn, silo, and farmhouse; and the smaller closer pad for an N Scale aluminum grain storage silo - again I'm working to force the perspective, and I hope to make the very top of this mountain appear very distant indeed. Most of the town of Westridge will be built on the hatch-top, which will cover the void  on the right in this photo.

One of the things I like to do while roughing out a large scene is to place any structures on the surfaces I am preparing for them to see if everything fits and looks in scale and convincing. In this case when I placed the house, barn, and silo on the pad I had prepared for them, they seemed a little crowded, so I added another separate pad for the house a little higher up the slope. You can see it in the following photo.
ws Rock faces screwed or glued in place, plastic screen "skin" installed, highway ssurfaces installed, homasote modeling in process. Notice the narrow strip of styrene running along the slope from the highway up to the farm pads. This will supply a level base for a little gravel/dirt farm road and I can model in a little cut and fill as I apply the Sculptamold. Again the forced perspective is already beginning to work.

wmo Initial base paint job
wmgc Plaster/tempera ground texture applied and over-wash earth tone paint applied- ground cover applied, and rocks dry-brushed with light gray and then very lightly with white.
wmc Shrubs and trees installed to complete my second mountain scene.
wmcu Closeup detail.

Westridge: Town Planning and Construction

As mentioned earlier in this blog, I plan to build the town of Westridge on and around the flat hatch cover between the two mountains that I have just completed: that is to say, between the corner mountain covering the East River curve and the mountain covering the Westridge loop. So far, I have done little in the way of town planning here. The reason for this is I want to wait until the space around the town location is fully developed before I commit to a specific town layout. For me this is the easiest way to maintain good transitions between the town and the surrounding terrain. This said, I do have in mind a rough idea of what I want the town to look like and what buildings and other features might be employed in its construction. What is more, the surrounding completed terrain and track work dictates a lot. For example, I know the exact location of all roads and highways leading into and out of town, and the location the of depot and the platform.

The best way to proceed at this point is to roughly make a few sketches that place the key structures that I know you want to include onto various street plans until I get something I like. It is a must at this point that I have selected at least the key the structures I want to use, and that I have on hand at the very least a to-scale cutout of the footprint of each of these structures. An even better approach is to have on hand completed models of all of the structures I plan to use - or at least completed models of the key structures I plan to use.

Once I settle on a general street plan, I will lightly sketch it onto the homasote and place my structures on it, making adjustments as I go until I get a street layout that accommodates all my structures and marries gracefully to existing roads, track work, and other 
surrounding features. In this way, I will develop not only a street grid design, but exact street widths and the location of sidewalks, trees, rail crossings, traffic lights, parks, playgrounds, telephone poles and all of the other details that will make up my town.

wl Here the hatch cover has been replaced and the town of Westridge as been laid out on  the flat surface. I plan to put a low hill in the back left corner by the church to accomodate a cemetery. This will help to break up the uniform flatness of the town terrace. There will be a little grassy space with trees beside the hotel on the left and a near wooded strip behind that beside the road leading up the mountain and in front on the large rock escarpment farther back. This tree line along the left side of the town scene should soften the now-abrupt transition to the mountain scene and break up the expanse of the large rock face. 
ws Here .040 styrene strips have been cut from sheets and covered with 220 grid sand paper and spray  painted dark k gray with a final spray dusting of black and then a very light gray mist to form streets, which are then glued in place with a thin coat of Liquid Nails. Sidewalks are then installed along the streets. I use Liquid Nails to glue the sand paper covering to the the styrene and to glue down the street strips and sidewalks because it is stronger than white glue and will not warp the styrene like so many other adhesives. 
wc The next move was to mark the location of the streets and sidewalks, remove all the structures, and glue the sidewalks to the the streets and then glue the streets in place on the homasote. Then I used dry transfers to make street center lines and other street painted markings like parking spaces etc. Then I laid out the small hill for the church and cemetery, filled in all of the unpaved areas with Sculptamold, texturing, and ground cover, and added shrubs, trees, vehicles, figures and other details. Not much left to do here except  to ballast the track, construct two more sections of the depot platform, and install LED lights in all the structures. Remember.his entire town is built on a hatch cover so I will glue all structures and vehicles etc. in place after everything is complete. 
wlw Here is the underside of the hatch with seven 4 bulb series circuits attached to 12 volt feeder bus terminals.Structure lighting on the A&BR2 is accomplished using warm white LEDs powered by the switchable 12 volt supply circuit. LEDs are wired 4 bulbs in series with a 680 ohm resistor. There are a few remote structures that will be lit with the same LEDs, but with individual bulbs wired  in parallel using the switchable 5 volt supply circuit, each of these solo bulbs gets a 1000 ohm resistor.
Here is a night photo. The switchable supply circuits are turned on and off using relays triggered by a DS64 switch machine set in the slow motion mode, and wired using a zenor diode to convert the polarity reversing output to an on/off output. Thus, all structure lighting can be controlled and fully automated by TrainController.

Thoughts Regarding Track Cleaning and Running Trains During Layout Construction

Keeping track and wheels clean and trains running smoothly is an ongoing challenge, and it is especially difficult when parts of the layout scenery is under construction. The problems are obvious. First, no matter how carefully done, scenery construction generates dust. As a general rule, once all the mainline track is laid, I never use sprays or power saws or abrasives like sandpaper in the train room. Still, I am frequently using paint and glue and dusty powers made of plaster of paris and tempura paint, as well as all manner of dusty ground covers and the like. Even though I try to vacuum as I go, it is still construction is still a dusty process. What is more every time I sweep the floor, dust is raised to inevitably settle down on the track. Second, during construction, I don't run trains every day, or even every week for that matter, and as every model railroader knows, once the track is clean nothing keeps it clean like running trains over it. If a model railroad sits for a week or two without activity, even under the cleanest of circumstances, it will undoubtedly be sluggish when restarted. So it is a double edge problem: the creation of dust and the absence of regular traffic.  

It seems to me that not running trains during construction, just letting things go is a mistake. Accordingly, I have settled on a periodic program of track cleaning and train running. At least every two or three weeks, I stop what I am doing and try to get the layout clean enough to smoothly run a sequence of schedules designed to travel over all of the mainline track. This involves five long trains, and the schedules exercise station stops at all depot sidings, and include all my sound and room lighting routines like sunrise and sun sets.

I first run each train around the layout by itself, and use a bright boy and alcohol to clean any stops where it studders. During this process I clean the loco wheels several times, for if there is dust or grim or glue or whatever on the track, it will surely get on the wheels. Then I run my full multi-train sequence, which takes about 10 minutes or so. Generally, I can get things working smoothly and  without incident with in an hour or so. Still it is always surprising to me how funky things can get after even a short period of disuse. Along the way, I almost always encounter a few spots in the track that I want to tweak, and a few trucks or couplers that need adjustment.

Once my five train sequence runs to conclusion without incident, I shut things down and return to my layout construction. 

Completing the Westridge Side of the North Bench 

Just a few details to attend to and I'll be done with this side of the North bench: a church window, window treatment for the buildings of the town (black outs and shades etc.) just so all the lighted windows don't look the same, some ground cover along the road from East River Mountain and a few structures there (an ice house, a bakery and a creamery) with lights. A few more trees and shrubs along the road into town and - "Voila, Fini." Another milestone: scenery complete on 15 feet of outer wall bench, out of the roughly 95 feet of bench needed to complete all the bench work along the outer wall. Now on the the East bench and the larger town of East River.

wo Overview of Westridge looking down from the West Rridge across the rooftops of the town and the lake below to East River Mountain in the background
wtc Westridge town grid with a view of the exposed rock face of the West Ridge on the left.

Moving On: The East Bench and the Town of East River.

The town of East River will be the second largest of the 4 towns on the A&BR2. It will occupy all the space between the two double track mainlines on the East bench, and will be a terraced affair with three levels and a couple of irregular hillocks: one accommodating a large park and the other accommodating the highway bridge crossing over the rails to connect East River to the main highway, which hugs the bench front. I have placed the depot near the bench front on the highway side of the track to allow room for the town to have at least a two-block-deep street plan on all levels. This created a bit of a traffic jam, and I had to drop the main highway below the bench top level in order to bypass the depot by means of a roadway tunnel. This is a little unusual, but it should add variation to what would otherwise be just a long, straight, flat road, something one rarely sees on the Blue Ridge  Mountains.

Since, the terraces are already in place, the first order of business is the prep the topography and the steets and highway
roadbeds, tunnel portal, and retaining walls.

ers Here is the topo and street preperation for the righthand half of the town of East River including my rough in forms for the two hillocks, homasote ramps for major roadway elevation changes and the road and street layout complete with .040 styrene sheets. I have also roughed the main retaining walls and the tunnel portals.

Next the streets will be completed and glued down and the street lines added (see the following entry dated 6-18-2018,)  The rock face and heavy retaining walls must be installed and painted and detailed, and the screen, sculptamold and ground cover will follow. I also have to install the sidewalks and all the LEDs for the structure lighting and put the structures in place.  I must also complete the chruch grounds to the left of the town including the creation of the cemetary. 

Trouble with Dry Tranfers as Roadway Centerlines

I have always used dry tranfers to create lines on my sandpaper-covered .040 sheet styrene roadways, but for some reason the last sheet of white line transfer I got from Woodland Scenics did not work well. Instead of comming free in a single strip as usual, these lines kind of disintegratrd, sticking only to the raised grit of the painted sandpaper, and the result was rough-edged and uneven. I can't say what changed, but it's a problem. So, I did some reading online and found that some modelers use a very narrow tape called Chartpak Graphic Art Tape available in 1/64 inch width. I odered some, and it came today, but alas, I'll be out of town for a week or so. Results when I get back.

rlb Dry transfer problem,
Ratty lines repaired with 1/64 inch Art tape. Perhaps 1/32 inch would be even better (that's about 5 inches or so). The Art Tape coverd up the problem to my satisfaction. This repair is not perfect, but it is not so bad as to warrent repainting the streets.

 In general, I think the Art Tape is a far better technique. It gives a cleaner result than even my best dry transfer efforts. It is also much less expensive. The only probelm is that it does not readily stick to the sand paper grit road surfaces, and in order to get it to stick, I have to work with a samll brush and some liquid Testors dull coat.  As with the dry transfers, the dull coat is necessary to form the final bonding coat anyway, so this is not really much of a a problem. Once I got the hang of it, it went much faster than applying the dry trasnsfers and it was easier to line up and adjust. I plan to keep both 1/64 and 1/32 inch Art Tape on hand in white and yellow. 

East River Left Side Completed

Now that the street line difficulties are resolved, and since I already have all the structures completed, it is a simple matter to complete the left side of the town.

rl Here, the East River main streets with road markings and sidewalks have been completed along with all the retaining walls and rock faces, and all  ground cover except track ballast. Now some trees and landscaping, some telephone poles, a few more figures and vehicles and other details to the complete the scene.
erc East River Completed
erc2 Another View

Notice I have yet to complete the scenery along the front edge of the bench. I will do that after I have ballasted the track so I don't have to work over the top of finished trees etc when I do the ballasting later on. 

Completing the Scenery on the East Bench and Some Thoughts About Marrying Mountains to the Backdrop

The remaining half of the East bench will contain the rolling residentail section of the town of East River and the rest of the hilly valley between the East River and the low hills on the Little River Curve. In addition to five homes, there will be a small park with a bandstand, a broad pasture beginning in three deminsions next to the backdrop and disappering into the distance of a flat pasture photo pasted on the backdrop silhouette, and several rock faced cuts along the backdrop silhouette. There will also be a low ridge with cuts for the railroad roadbed and two highways on the far right tying into the railroad cuts through the hills on the Little River Curve.

ebnr Right - Rough in of a low ridge with cuts extending out from the backdrop. Left- Rough in of house lots with small meadow rough in behiind.
evo East River Valley: Scene near completion,
ervf Here is another good example of the forced perspective. The pasture beyond the road in the background is only about 5 inches deep and the most distant part of this grassy hill side just behind the distant cows is a flat photo pasted to the back drop.
Note: I have found that three deminsional mountains and hills that tie into the two demoinsional backdrop mountain silhouettes and extend outward into the three deminsional space help to breakup the flat plane of the backdrop silhouette, and add credibility to the entire backdrop by enhancing the false perspective and effectively hiding the point at which the model changes from 2 to 3 deminsions. With high mountains, this technique is most effective when I create the sumit within the three deminsional space and make the transition to the two deminsional backdrop on the down-slope just behind the sumit.

Scenery on the Little River Curve

With the completion of the East bench scenery, I have begun work the Little River Curve. This section of the layout has no access from the aisle behind the backdrop, so I plan no tunnels here. Instead, I opted for a low mountain with a wide, deep, open cut for the two double track mainline roadbeds. This allows easy access to all track on the curve, and it gives the overall layout a little variety. That is to say, I don't think it is a good idea to have a mountain in all four corners of the room. Anyway, the general plan is to have the mountain provide an end to the wide valley on the East bench and then transition down to the finger of  the lake on the east end of the North bench, which is below bench level.

The part of the mountain that is against the backdrop wall is relatively high and steep and will feature a large meadow next to the East bench and a high (about 75 scale feet) rock cut wall next to the track. This meadow will continue along the edge of the cut and will terminae at a forest tree line about half way up the slope. Again I will force the perspective on the meadow between the rock cut-wall and the tree line. I am not sure exactly what I'll do for scenery on the near portion of the mountain next to bench-edge, but I know I do not want a lot of tall trees there, as they would make it difficult to reach over them when cleaning or servicing the track. Perhaps a little orchard with small forest at either end. As  usual, I began my planning with a rough sketch.

LRCS Here is my rough sketch, Kind of cryptic, I know, but just drawing this helped me to sort out my thoughts and address all the planning issues required. It will make a little more sense when you examine the rough-in photo bleow.
lrcri LittleRive Curve rough-in with homasote forms, screen, and roughed-in rock walls. The two double-track main lines begin in a single wide cut on the right and then diverge into two cuts in the next mountain on the East bench.  The mountain side behind the high rock cut wall is very steep. The placement of the the tree-line will be critical. It will probably be best to place it pretty low on the mountainside. I may experiment with a homosote strip to carry a forest floor photo and to raisxe the height of the trees on the near edge of the forest at this treeline similar to the way I handled the forest floor photos on the back drop.

 Next comes the sculptamold; the first painting of the ground, forest floor, and rock; the "zip" texturing and a quick wash painting after it is dry to correct the color; then the ground cover, shrubs and trees; and finally, any structural details. I am toying with the idea of adding a small pond in the low spot in the meadow to the left, with a small stream running down to the stone wall and into an under-the-track culvert leading to small stream-bed down to the lake.

lrl1 The idea for the pond came from a natural low spot in the meadow topography about 3/4 of the way up the slope. I did not plan it, but juat looking at the contour of the hillside made me think small pond. There is a natural place for a dam, and a deep revine for the stream to run down the mountain, under the retainng wall amd the track in a culvert, and spill into a another little revine between the two sets of mainline tracks. From there, it will empty into the lake at Little River via a small waterfall.

In the photo on the left, you can see I have spread sculptamold on the screen leaving the pond  and stream position open so I can tie it in after I create, pour, and position the pond and the stream. Once these are in place, I can fashion the the dam and tie it all together with sculptamold.
Here is the pond bed and the stream bed ready for painting, sealing, detailning, and the pour of the Magic Water.
lrl3 Here the pond and stream forms are roughly placed in position to check the fit and the elevations. 
lrl4 I like to pour the Magic Water on to a flat form made from .040 styrene sheeting cut to size. I make banks using sculptamold  and I use  1/8 inch square styrene strips to make barriers glued to the styrene to form a resivoir for the Magic Water pour. This way I can make the pour on a perfectly flat and level surface. This means that these forms have to be sealed, painted, and detialed with anything that will be in or below the water so I can make the pour around or over it. Here, I have painted the bottom of the pond and the stream and the banks of both as well; and I have glued in a few rocks in the stream and in the pond and some reed and a fallen trees in the pond using gloss matte medium as glue. Then I made the pour, let it dry, and finally I construncted the dam and tied  the water forms  into the scene using sculpatmold.

Since I am again forcing the perspctive here, the steram feeding the head of the pond will be quite small, so I can just cut it into the sculptamold and make any water effects I need using gloss medium or my Woodland Scenics' water effects gel.
lrl5 Here is the entire Little River Curve ready for the initail paint coat.Notice I have used a sharpy to rough in the location of the distant tree line and the location of the forests (xxx). 
lrl6 Here is the completed initial paint coat (dark grey rocks, red/brown meadow or orchard soil, brown near  forest floor, and black distant forest floor.)

Looking at this photo, I realize I have made a mistake. My plan was to have the mian highway, which one can see on the left in the photo running along the edge of the East bench, come up and around the curve and continue on along the edge on the North bench. I will have to cut a little of the edge of the near hill away and rough this in. The finished bench will have a one foot radius in what is now a right angle corner, so there will be plenty of room for the roadway grade and curve.
lrl7 Next I added the gound "zip" texture, a second washy coat of earth colored paint to correct the color, the ground cover, and some shrubs and trees. Here is a view of the high meadow with the pond and stream. Again. I forced the perspective across thje meadow, and as a result, the distant treeline is very convincing indeed.